Islam arrived in 1085, and by the 16th century, three rival kingdoms flourished: the Kanem-Bornu, Baguirmi, and Ouaddai. Arab slave raids were widespread from 1500 to 1900. From 1883 to 1893, all three kingdoms came under the rule of the Sudanese conqueror Rabih al-Zubayr.
The French first penetrated Chad in 1891, establishing their authority through military expeditions primarily against the Muslim kingdoms. In 1900, Rabih was overthrown by the French, who absorbed the kingdoms into the colony of French Equatorial Africa in 1913.
In 1946, Chad became an autonomous republic within the French Community. In 1959, the French Equatorial Africa was dissolved, and four states, Gabon, the Central African Republic, Congo, and Chad, became autonomous members of the French Community. On August 11, 1960, Chad became an independent nation. Chad's first president was Francois Tombalbaye.
A long civil war began in 1965. Tombalbaye was killed in a 1975 military coup and Gen. Felix Malloum was installed as head of state. Internal dissent within the government led the northern prime minister, HissÃ¨in HabrÃ©, to send his forces against the national army in N'Djamena in February 1979.
Four international conferences held first under Nigerian and then Organization of African Unity (OAU) sponsorship attempted to bring the Chadian factions together. At the fourth conference, held in Lagos, Nigeria, in August 1979, the Lagos Accord was signed. The Lagos Accord established a transitional government pending national elections.
In November 1979, the National Union Transition Government (GUNT) was created. Goukouni Oueddei, a former rebel leader, was named President. Colonel Kamougue was named Vice President and Hissen HabrÃ© the Minister of Defense. Fighting broke out again in March 1980, when HabrÃ© challenged Goukouni and seized the capital.
With assistance from Libya, Goukouni regained control of the capital. In January 1981, Libyan president Muammar al-Qaddafi proposed a merger of Chad with Libya. The Libyan proposal was rejected and Libyan troops withdrew from Chad, but in 1983 they poured back in support of Goukouni. France sent troops into southern Chad in support of HabrÃ©.
Government troops launched an offensive in early 1987 that drove the Libyans out of most of the country. A cease-fire between Chad and Libya held from 1987 to 1988, and negotiations over the next several years led to the 1994International Court of Justice decision granting Chad sovereignty over the Aouzou strip, effectively ending Libyan occupation.
In April 1989, Idriss DÃ©by, defected and fled to Sudan. He mounted a series of attacks. In December 1990, DÃ©by's forces marched on N'Djamena, overthrew Habre, suspended the constitution, and dissolved the legislature. DÃ©by's Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS) approved a national charter on February 28, 1991, with DÃ©by as president.
DÃ©by faced at least two coup attempts. Government forces clashed violently with rebel forces. In 1994 a new constitution was drafted and amnesty for political prisoners was declared. DÃ©by won multi-party elections in 1996 and was re-elected in May 2001.
In May 2004, the National Assembly voted in favor of an amendment to the Constitution that would allow President DÃ©by to run again. The amendment was approved in a national referendum in June 2005 and abolished presidential term limits.
In April 2006, N'djamena was attacked by the United Front for Democratic Change, led by the Tama ethnic group coordinating with another rebel organization from the Zaghawa ethnic group. The government put down the attacks. DÃ©by was elected to his third presidential term on May 3, 2006.
Rebels stormed N'Djamena in February 2008 and demanded the resignation of President DÃ©by. Leaders in Chad accused Sudan of fomenting the rebellion. In April 2008, DÃ©by fired Prime Minister Delwa Kassire Koumakoye and replaced him with Youssouf Saleh Abbas.
Calls of fraud and misconduct in the February 2011 parliamentary election led to the opposition's boycott of the presidential election in April. Idriss DÃ©by was re-elected for a fourth term.
In July 2011, Senegal suspended the repatriation of HissÃ¨ne HabrÃ©. HabrÃ© remained in Senegal instead of returning to Chad, where he earned a sentence of death for crimes against humanity while president.
In January 2013, Prime Minister Emmanuel Nadingar resigned. Djimrangar Dadnadji was named as prime minister. In May, a coup against the government of President Idriss DÃ©by was foiled by Chadian security forces.
In July 2013, Senegalese authorities arrested former Chadian President HissÃ¨ne HabrÃ© in Dakar and put him on trial him for crimes against humanity committed under his rule.
On November 21, 2013, KalzeubÃ© Pahimi Deubet was named as prime minister after Djimrangar Dadnadji tendered his resignation.
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